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Eye exams can uncover many ocular conditions that patients do not realize they have.  There are are also many systemic conditions that can affect your eyes.  Patients with any medical conditions should have annual eye exams to rule out related eye disease.



Dry eye is one of the most common conditions involving the eye. To start off, look at the anatomy of the human tear film. There are three layers to the tear film. The innermost layer is the mucin layer. This layer is followed by the aqueous layer and then the  outermost oily layer. If a person is deficient in any of these layers, symptoms could occur.



Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy can occur in the eyes of a patient with diabetes and is the leading cause of blindness in American adults. Diabetic retinopathy can affect the eyes in two ways: blood vessels may swell and leak fluid or abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. It is manageable and, in most cases, avoidable, if the patient's diabetes is managed properly.


A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside of the eye. Cataracts are very common in people over 60 and typically become worse with age.  Cataracts are a natural aging process of the eye, but they can be accelerated by factors such as smoking, trauma, diabetes and some medications.


Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve. The optic nerve is a bundle of fibers that carries messages to and from the brain. There are many forms of glaucoma that can affect people of all ages so it is important to be checked yearly for any signs of the disease. 

Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration is a disease of the macula or central vision.  It It is generally age related (called AMD) but can rarely occur in young individuals as well. There are two types of age related macular degeneration: Dry and Wet. Dry occurs when drusen builds up in the macula and wet is when underlying blood vessels leak. There continue to be many advancements in the treatment and management of AMD.  

Computer Vision Syndrome

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a disorder related to near work during computer use. It involves both the visual and the muscular skeletal systems. Poor posture and decreased blinking are two major factors in CVS.

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